Principle 2.1 (First Principle of Mathematical Induction). Let S(n) be a statement about

integers for n N and suppose S(n0) is true for some integer n0. If for all integers k with

k n0, S(k) implies that S(k + 1) is true, then S(n) is true for all integers n greater than

or equal to n0.

Equivalence relation:

- Reflexive.
- Symmetric.
- Transitive.

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