The scaling factor(SF):
Scale a shape to one-half or any other fraction of it’s original
The mass scaling factor(MSF):
Find the ratio of the mass of new shape to an original shape or the ratio of a number of pixels captured by new shape to original shape.
D is the fractal dimension. This is used as a measure of the roughness of the shape.
Usually, natural objects have fractal dimensions and man-made objects have more integer dimension.